Natural Home Cures Mangosteen Xanthones Documented Peer Review Studies

 

 

Natural Home Cures Freeze Dried Rich Pericarp Mangosteen

PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine® that: Provides free access to MEDLINE®, the NLM® database of indexed citations and abstracts to dental, health care, medical, nursing, veterinary, and preclinical sciences journal articles.


Among the 56+ mangosteen xanthones found in the whole mangosteen fruit, alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin have been the main subject of many academic, medical and scientific studies by mangosteen researchers from around the world.(1*) These two mangosteen xanthones have been shown to be very useful as anti-inflammatory agents.

One research study revealed that the mangosteen xanthones were, even more, potent than several anti-inflammatory medications used for pain and inflammation.(2*) (Agricultural Food Chemistry - Bioavailability Antioxidant Effects Xanthone-Rich Mangosteen.)

The xanthones found in mangosteen are being demonstrated to reduce inflammation by inhibiting the body's production of the COX-2 enzyme and blocking the process that leads to inflammation.(3*) The xanthones achieve this without affecting the blood's clotting mechanism or damaging the stomach lining (causing ulcers) as most anti-inflammatory medications do. One study documented that the mangosteen xanthones helped with stomach ulcers.(4*) (PubMed - Role Of Gastric Mucus Secretion, Sulfhydryl Groups On Gastroprotection (Xanthones).) 

Alpha-mangostin: a xanthone derivative from the mangosteen was found to have Anti-Cancer effects in their short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay system.(5*) (PubMed - Anti-Cancer Effects Of Xanthones From Pericarps Of Mangosteen.)

In another study on alpha-mangostin's effects on human leukemia cells, results indicated Mangosteen Xanthones Extracts For Natural Anti-Cancer and Chemopreventive Therapy.(6*) (PubMed - Mangosteen Xanthones Extracts As Natural Chemopreventive Anticancer Drugs.)

Alpha-mangostin was also shown to have potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Scientists demonstrated alpha-mangostin's activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. They found that alpha-mangostin, alone or in combination with gentamicin, against vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and used in conjunction with vancomycin hydrochloride against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) might be useful in controlling VRE and MRSA infections.(7*) (PubMed - Antibacterial Activity Of Alpha-Mangostin Against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus.)

Further studies showed that alpha-mangostin works well with and enhances the effects of other commercially available antibiotics such as ampicillin and minocycline. In laboratory experiments, scientists examined the antimicrobial activity of alpha-mangostin and found that it possesses strong inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.(8*) (PubMed - Potent Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.)

Researchers also found that alpha-mangostin is a histaminergic receptor-blocking agent; alpha-mangostin is effective in mitigating allergies.(9*) (PubMed - Mangosteen Xanthones Mitigate Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation Of Asthma.)

Gamma-mangostin: Scientists demonstrated that gamma-mangostin proved to be a stronger antioxidant than other compounds long known for their antioxidant properties.(10*) Medical researchers in Thailand and Taiwan discovered that gamma-mangostin was shown to have even more potent antioxidant activity than vitamin E, one of the most powerful antioxidants known to science. Even more than just being powerful antioxidants, gamma-mangostin may be able to help with a wide variety of common health issues. (Sigma - Aldrich - Gamma-mangostin.)

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad" cholesterol) is one of the main causes of atherosclerosis and heart disease. Australian scientists studied gamma-mangostin in experiments using LDL and powerful oxidants. Their study showed that gamma-mangostin successfully protected the LDL from oxidation by free radicals.(11*) (Toxnet - Mangostin.)

Gamma-mangosteen has been proven to be a very effective anti-inflammatory agent. Scientists have shown that it significantly slowed down the body's production of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, a key player in inflammatory conditions.(12*) Controlling COX-2 production has been found to be an important factor in reducing inflammation and pain.
(Sigma-Aldrich - Inhibition Cyclooxygenase Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis By Gamma-Mangostin.)

Japanese scientists led by K. Nakatani concluded that gamma-mangostin would be a new useful lead compound for the development of anti-inflammatory medications.(13*) Gamma-mangostin helps stop inflammation by inhibiting the body's production of the COX-2 enzyme that leads to inflammation. One highly prized property gamma-mangostin possesses its ability to provide this benefit without affecting blood clotting or damaging the stomach lining, two of the potential side effects caused by most anti-inflammatory medications. (Phyto Science - Anti-inflammatory - Invivo.)

Scientists also demonstrated that gamma-mangostin limits the body's production of the COX-2 enzyme without causing ulcers.(14*) In fact, their study showed that gamma-mangostin even helped with stomach ulcers. (Memorial Sloan Kettering - Mangosteen.)

One study also suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of gamma-mangostin on brain cells may have the potential in addressing inflammatory conditions of the brain.(15*) Alzheimer's is one example of these inflammatory conditions. (US National Library of Medicine - Multifunctional Effects of Mangosteen Pericarp on Cognition.)

About 150 million people worldwide have asthma, and about 40 percent of people in developed countries suffer from allergies. Several studies have shown gamma-mangostin as a possible natural antihistamine that can be used to address allergies such as asthma and psoriasis.(16*) (Drugs - Mangosteen.)

In another study, Japanese scientists found that gamma-mangostin is a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist in the central nervous system which indicates it has potential for helping with depression and other anxiety symptoms.(17*)

The power of gamma-mangostin to help with a variety of health issues, as well as its unique anti-inflammatory properties, makes it one of the most admired xanthones in mangosteen. (PubMed - Gamma-mangostin, a novel type of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonist.)

Scientists investigating the effects of the mangosteen xanthones on the HIV-1 virus found that mangostin and gamma-mangostin demonstrated the ability to inhibit the activity of the HIV-1 virus that causes AIDS.(18*) (PubMed: Active Constituents Against HIV-1 Protease From Garcinia Mangostana.)

Xanthones also have cancer-fighting properties. In one study, a xanthone from the mangosteen—Garcinone E—was found to be more effective than the chemotherapy agents fluorouracil, cisplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, and mitoxantrone with regards to lung, stomach, and liver cancer cells.(19*)
(Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center: Mangosteen)

Researchers found that alpha-mangostin, beta-mangostin, and garcinone B were strong inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mangostin was also found to have the ability to protect the LDL from oxidative damage by free radicals.(20*)  (PubMed: Mangostin Inhibits Oxidative Modification Of Human Low-density Lipoprotein.)

This helps in addressing the "bad cholesterol" (LDL) levels about (heart disease). Xanthones also have the ability to stop histamines that often cause uncomfortable inflammation in people with allergies(21*)
PubMed: Inhibitions Of Histamine Release & Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis B Mangosteen.)

1,3,6,7-TETRAHYDROXYANTHONE Wood: CCO
1,3,6,7-TETRAHYDROXYANTHONE-O-GLUCOSIDE Wood: CCO
1,5-DIHYDROXY-2-(3-METHYLBUT-2-ENYL)
3-METHOXYXANTHONE
Fruit: CCO
1FAT Seed 1,000 - 34,285 ppm JFM
8-DEOXYGARTANIN Fruit: HHB
ASCORBIC-ACID Fruit 10 - 255 ppm CRC JFM
ASH Fruit 2,000 - 13,140 ppm JFM
BETA-CAROTENE Fruit: CRC
BETA-MANGOSTIN Latex Exudate 20,000 ppm; CCO
BETULIN Leaf 250 ppm; JAD
CALCIUM Fruit 100 - 637 ppm CRC JFM
CARBOHYDRATES Fruit 143,000 - 960,000 ppm JFM
CATECHINS Fruit 50,000 - 60,000 ppm HHB Petiole 700,000 - 140,000 ppm WOI
CIS-HEX-3-ENYL-ACETATE Fruit: CCO
CIS-S-3-HEXEN-1-OL Fruit: CCO
CITRIC-ACID Fruit 4,200 - 27,815 ppm WOI
FAT Seed 30,000 ppm; WOI
FIBER Fruit 50,000 - 318,000 ppm JFM
GAMMA-MANGOSTIN Fruit: CCO
ARCINONES Petiole: CCO
GARTANIN Fruit: HHB
HEXYL-ACETATE Fruit: CCO
IRON Fruit 2 - 46 ppm JFM
KILOCALORIES Fruit 600 - 3,630 /kg CRC JFM
MACLURIN Wood: CCO
MANGOSTIN Fruit: HHB Latex Exudate 300,000 - 500,000 ppm CCO
N,7DIHYDROXY-2-(3-METHYLBUT-2-ENYL)
3-METHOXYXANTHONE
Fruit: CCO
NIACIN Fruit 6 - 38 ppm CRC
PECTIN Fruit 1,000 - 5,000 ppm JFM WOI
PHOSPHORUS Fruit 100 - 685 ppm CRC JFM
PHYTIN Fruit 1,190 - 6,560 ppm JFM
POTASSIUM Fruit 1,350 - 8,560 ppm CRC
PROTEIN Fruit 5,000 - 34,285 ppm JFM
RIBOFLAVIN Fruit 0.2 - 1.3 ppm CRC
SODIUM Fruit 10 - 64 ppm CRC
SUGARS Fruit 164,200 - 960,000 ppm JFM WOI
THIAMIN Fruit 0.3 - 1.9 ppm CRC JFM
WATER Fruit 802,000 - 849,000 ppm JFM

*ppm = parts per million
*tr = trace

References:
CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
JFM: Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

* "Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen)". J. Agric. Food Chem. PMID 16536578.
* "Pharmacological profile of mangostin and its derivatives". Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. PMID 314790.
* Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
* Alternative pathways of xanthone biosynthesis in cell cultures L. Werner Schmidt and Ludger Beerhues, FEBS Letters, Volume 420
* Tomentonone, a new xanthonoid from the stem bark of Calophyllum tomentosum. Banerji A., Deshpande A. D., Prabhu B. R. and Padmanava P., Journal of natural products, 1994, vol. 57, no3,
* Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants. Boskou Dimitrios, Trends in Food Science & Technology 17 (2006) 505–512, doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2006.04.00
* Clinical Guide to Nutrition and Dietary Supplements in Disease Management. ISBN 0-443-07193-4.
* "Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of the Natural Polyphenol Chlorogenic Acid". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 29: 2236–40. doi:10.1248/bpb.29.2236

 

     Source References
(1) US National Library of Medicine - Bioaccessibility, Biotransformation, Transport Mangostin
(2) Agricultural Food Chemistry - Bioavailability Antioxidant Effects Xanthone-Rich Mangosteen
(3) Sigma-Aldrich - Inhibition Cyclooxygenase Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis By Gamma-Mangostin
(4) PubMed - Role Of Gastric Mucus Secretion, Sulfhydryl Groups On Gastroprotection (Xanthones)
(5) PubMed - Anti-Cancer Effects Of Xanthones From Pericarps Of Mangosteen
(6) PubMed - Mangosteen Xanthones Extracts As Natural Chemopreventive Anticancer Drugs
(7) PubMed - Antibacterial Activity Of Alpha-Mangostin Against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci
(8) PubMed - Potent Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
(9) PubMed - Mangosteen Xanthones Mitigate Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation Of Asthma
(10) Sigma - Aldrich - Gamma-mangostin
(11) Toxnet - Mangostin
(12) Sigma-Aldrich - Inhibition Cyclooxygenase Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis By Gamma-Mangostin
(13) Phyto Science - Anti-inflammatory - Invivo
(14) Memorial Sloan Kettering - Mangosteen
(15) US National Library of Medicine - Multifunctional Effects of Mangosteen Pericarp on Cognition
(16) Drugs - Mangosteen
(17) PubMed - Gamma-mangostin, a novel type of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonist
(18) PubMed: Active Constituents Against HIV-1 Protease From Garcinia Mangostana
(19)
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center: Mangosteen
(20)
PubMed: Mangostin Inhibits Oxidative Modification Of Human Low-density Lipoprotein
(21)
PubMed: Inhibitions Of Histamine Release & Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis B Mangosteen


Source References

  • "Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen)". J. Agric. Food Chem. PMID 16536578.
  • "Pharmacological profile of mangostin and its derivatives". Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. PMID 314790.
  • Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
  • Alternative pathways of xanthone biosynthesis in cell cultures L. Werner Schmidt and Ludger Beerhues, FEBS Letters, Volume 420
  • Tomentonone, a new xanthonoid from the stem bark of Calophyllum tomentosum. Banerji A., Deshpande A. D., Prabhu B. R. and Padmanava P., Journal of natural products, 1994, vol. 57, no3,
  • Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants. Boskou Dimitrios, Trends in Food Science & Technology 17 (2006) 505–512, doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2006.04.00
  • Clinical Guide to Nutrition and Dietary Supplements in Disease Management. ISBN 0-443-07193-4.
  • "Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of the Natural Polyphenol Chlorogenic Acid". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 29: 2236–40. doi:10.1248/bpb.29.2236.

Natural Home Cures Freeze Dried Rich Pericarp Mangosteen Disclaimer